Use of “de” particles: 的, 得,地

Using of 的 particle:

This particle is used to:
1) indicate possessive pronouns.
For example, 我的房子。 My house.

2) indicate two-parted adjectives with nouns.
For example, 黑色的裙子, a black skirt 年轻的姑娘。 a young girl.
This particle shouldn’t be used for one-parted adjectives. Compare: 黑裙子, 美姑娘。

3) mark out the verb constructions.
These sentences often can be translated like: B, which A, and there construction is: А 的 В.
For example, 我把一个昨天买的包给你。 I give you a bag, which I bought yesterday.

Using of 得 particle

This particle is used to:
1) indicate adverbs
For example, 他跑得快。 He runs fast. Here the adjective turns to the adverb.
It should be placed right away after a verb, unlike 地 particle (see below).

2) indicate the possibility for verbs.
For example, 我买得起。 I CAN buy
我看得完。 I am able to read (something) completely.

Using of 地 particle

This particle is used mostly to indicate adverbs (it serves as adverb’s suffix),
for example, 高兴地大叫 to exclaim happily
努力地学习 to learn diligently
It also turns an adjective to an adverb, but it places BEFORE a verb, unlike 得 particle (see above).



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